Davlat Ilmiy Nashriyoti. Selections from Islom Intsiklopediya. Edited and translated by David E. Merrell. Seattle: muslimlife.org, 2010. http://www.centralasianlaw.com/archives/53. Selections originally published in Uzbek in Davlat Ilmiy Nashriyoti. O’zbekiston Milliy Intsiklopediyasi. O’zbekiston: Davlat Ilmiy Nashriyoti, 2004.
English: Bibi Seshanba, Seshanba ona – according to religious-superstitious ideas, a saint that is worshiped by women and a fictitious figure (mother); patron of women spinners (charx yiguruvchi) and protector of family happiness. It is one of the (aspects of) ancient religious beliefs that has been adapted to and preserved by Islam. Devout women worship Bibi Seshanba and hold banquets in her honor on Tuesdays. Naïve women request compassion and assistance from Bibi Seshanba and beg her to make their problems easier. Worshipping Bibi Seshanba and conducting ceremonies devoted to her occurs very little at the present time and is considered an idolatrous practice.
Uzbek: Bibi Seshanba, Seshanba ona – diniy-xurofiy tasavvurlarga ko’ra ayollar sig’inadigan avliyo, afsonaviy shaxs (ona); charx yigiruvchi ayollarning homiysi, oila baxtining himoyachisi. Qad. diniy e’tiqodlarning islomga moslashib saqlanib qolgan ko’rinishlaridan biri. Dindor ayollar B.S.ga sig’inib, seshanba kunlari uning sharafiga ziyofat beradilar. Soddadil ayollar B.S.dan muruvvat, madad tilaydilar, “mushkullarini oson qilish”ni iltijo qiladilar. B.S.ga sig’inish, unga atab marosimlar o’tkazish hoz. vaqtda juda kam uchraydi va shirk amallardan sanaladi (p. 50).
English: Murid (Arabic – one who follows) – one who follows in a willful manner; an apprentice. It is used in the sense of an apprentice who takes lessons from a murshid in the path (tariqat) in Sufism. In front of a shayx, pir, or murshid, Murids undertake for themselves the responsibility of certain obligations; establish secret trustworthy relationships with them; and submit to their will. In general, the term Murid also expresses the meaning of Sufi and even an ordinary Muslim.
Uzbek: Murid (arab. – ergashuvchi) – ixtiyoriy ravishda izdan boruvchi, shogird. Tasavvufda tariqatda murshidlaridan dars oluvchi shogird ma’nosida ishlatiladi. M. shayx, pir, murshid oldida o’z zimmasiga muayyan majburiyatlar oladi, ular b-n pinhona ishonchli munosabatlar o’rnatadi va ularning irodasiga bo’ysunadi. Umuman M. atamasi sufiy va hatto oddiy musulman ma’nolarini ham anglatadi (p. 168).
English: Murshid (Arabic – one who guides the way) – pir, shayx, or teacher (ustoz) who gives lessons in the odob of the path of Sufism (tariqat).
Uzbek: Murshid (arab. – yo’l ko’rsatuvchi) – tasavvufda tariqat odoblaridan saboq beruvchi pir, shayx va ustoz (p. 168).
English: Otin, Otinoyi – teacher of girls in Central Asian religious schools (maktabs). Otins acted as leaders in holding religious ceremonies among women (for example, Muhammad’s birthday feast (mavlud), commanding the good, forbidding the sinful, etc.) and were also engaged in giving them religious instruction.
Uzbek: Otin, Otinoyi – O’rta Osiodagi diniy maktablarda qizlar o’qituvchisi. O.lar ayollar o’rtasidagi diniy marosimlar (mas., mavlud, amri ma’ruf, nahiy munkar va v.) o’tkazishda boshchilik qilib, ularga diniy ta’lim berish v-n ham shug’ullangan (p.191).
English: Pir (Persian – elderly man, elder) – grand leaders of the path (tariqat) in the Sufi tradition or respected guides. Similarly, every murid calls his/her own murshid a Pir. The common understanding of “Pir” is saint (avliyo), and it is also used to mean the founder of a certain vocation.
Uzbek: Pir (Fors. – keksa qari) – sufiylik an’anasida tariqatlarning oily rahnamolari yoki obro’li rahnamolar. Shuningdek, har bir murid o’z murshidini ham P. deb atagan. Aholi orasida “P.” tushunchasi avliyo, ma’lum bir hunarining asoschisi ma’nosida ham ishlatiladi (p. 195).
English: Shayx (Arabic – elderly man, oqsoqol (respected elder; lit. “white beard”); oqsoqol of the tribe, clan, and family) – In countries where the Islam religion has spread, before (it was used for) well-educated people and scholars/scientists, afterwards (it was used for) religious leaders (ruhoniylar), Muslim scholars (ulamolar) and scholars of classical Islamic law/fiqh (faqihlar). Later on, pirs of the Sufi path (tariqat), Sufi masters (eshonlar), and lesser officials of sacred places were also considered Shayx. Among the Arabs prior to Islam, chiefs of the clan and tribe and great patriarchal oqsoqols of the family were called Shayx. In Muslim countries now, Shayx is also being used for teachers of religious institutions of higher education and titles of great ulamolar. Comparatively speaking, in Central Asia, Shayx was most often used for ruhoniylar who collect alms (sadaqa) and charity for sacred gravesites (muqaddas mozorlar) and places of pilgrimage.
Uzbek: Shayx (arab. – keksa, oqsoqol; qabila, urug’, oila oqsoqoli) – Islom diniy tarqalgan mamlakatlarda avval bilimdon kishilar, olimlar, so’ngra ruhoniylar, ulamolar, faqihlar. Keyinchalik sufilik tariqatidagi pirlar, eshonlar, muqaddas joylarning mutasaddilari ham Sh. deb yuritilgan Arablarda islomdan ilgari urug’, qabila boshliqlari, katta patriarxal oila oqsoqolari Sh. deb atalgan. Musulmon mamlakatlarida hozir Sh. oily diniy maktablarning mudarrislari va yirik ulamolarning unvoni sifatida ham qo’llaniladi. O’rta Osiada Sh. ko’pincha muqaddas mozorlar va qadamjolarga sadaqa va nazr-niyoz olib turadigan ruhoniylar tabaqasiga nisbatan ishlatilgan (p. 266).